Your knees may develop problems like pain, swelling, instability, locking or general difficulty in walking, climbing stairs and running. Common causes for these problems are cartilage and ligament injuries as well as arthritis or wear-tear of the knee.
At The Joint Clinic, we tailor make solutions. Simple problems are treated with medication and exercises. There are many causes of knee pain – common ones are outlined below.
Knee Pain from Meniscus Tear
Knee Pain from meniscus (shock absorber) tears is usually the result of a twisting injury. When the menisci are weakened due to aging, they may tear even with trivial events such as a false step while walking. Complaints are pain or clicking in the knee. The knee may sometimes lock and it becomes impossible to bend or straighten it. Treatment is by arthroscopy (keyhole surgery). In most cases, the torn meniscus is removed. This can be performed under local or spinal anesthesia. More about Knee Arthroscopy.More about arthroscopy in Local anesthesia
In young patients, the meniscus is sometimes amenable to repair. This is also carried out by arthroscopic techniques. More about meniscal repair
Knee Pain from Cartilage Tear
Knee Pain from Cartilage tears can result from injury or overuse. Common complaints are pain, swelling, clicking and difficulty walking. Minor tears can be cleaned with arthroscopy. Bigger ones require microfracture – an arthroscopic technique of making small holes in bone following which cartilage regenerates. More about microfracture
Large cartilage defects have to be managed by grafting cartilage from other parts of the knee along with bone plugs. More about osteochondral grafting
Some patients with cartilage tears may me suitable for cartilage transplant. In this technique, a part of cartilage is taken from your knee, then in the lab that cartilage grows into a big piece which is then transplanted back into your knee. More about cartilage transplant
Knee Ligament Injuries
Knee Ligament injuries lead to unstable knees which give way or turn “false” while walking or attempting to run. Most common ligament to tear is ACL (anterior cruciate ligament). We perform Anatomic ACL reconstructions where the graft restores your ligament exactly from where it came off. This is an arthroscopic or keyhole procedure which helps you get back to sports. More about ACL Reconstructions
Similarly PCL, MCL, PLC ligament tears can be reconstructed to restore your active lifestyle. We also perform multiple ligament reconstructions for badly injured knees with excellent outcomes. More about ligament reconstruction
Knee Cap Pain
Knee cap pain is usually experienced in front of the knee which gets worse when going up or down stairs. Initial treatment is with exercises. Sometimes arthroscopic surgery is required to realign the knee cap. This cures the pain completely.
Knee Cap Dislocations
Knee cap dislocations can be either managed by tightening the ligament (MPFL) which keeps the knee cap in its place or by moving the part of shin bone where the knee cap attaches. More about MPFL Reconstructions.
Knee Arthritis is a common condition that causes pain and swelling in the knee joint. It can start after injury or with advancing age due to “wear and tear”. Certain diseases like rheumatoid or gout can also trigger knee arthritis. Early stages can be treated with pain killers, exercises, activity modification and joint injections. More advanced cases need surgery. Sometimes it is possible to preserve half of the knee by doing a Unicompartmental Knee Replacement. But more often the surgery of choice is a Total Knee Replacement. We specialize in cruciate retaining knee replacements, which keep your posterior cruciate ligament intact during surgery. This minimises required bone cuts and preserves your tissues thereby giving a more natural feel in your replaced knee. With enhanced recovery techniques you can walk the next day and can go home after 48-72 hours.More about Knee Replacements
Knee stiffness develops after injury, surgery, prolonged immobilisation eg in a plaster or following an infection. Early cases are managed with physiotherapy. Advanced cases need surgery called arthrolysis to free up the joint. This can be performed by arthroscopic techniques.More about Knee arthrolysis